a. The importance of English
English language is one of language which is necessary for human life in this world. We can not deny that almost all of countries use English language to communicate with the other people. English is used in many parts of the world because at least a few people in community know the language. By knowing and being able to use English, it will make our life easier to survive, because we know that almost all of the things in this world always have relevance with English. We will not be able to do such thing, if we are not able to use English. For instance, nowadays almost all kinds of occupation use English as main requirement, so if we cannot use English, we will not find a job in this life. As the result, English is really importance for human life. On the other side, Sometime, between one place and other have different accent when they speak English, it is not a problem as long as it understandable. However, the important thing that we can communicate with the other by using English though that we cannot pay attention more in structure or grammar. If we meet with foreigner, it will be better for us to use English because we cannot speak their native language especially for those who English is a foreign in their country. English connects us with foreigner since it is world language and most people learn it.
Some reasons why English is important for us:
Firstly, we know that English is an international language, it can be seen that by using English, it makes the communication easier when the different countries meet each other without knowing what their native languages. Education has increased the role of English. We can see that in Indonesia education has introduced English language it self, the government has include English as a subject in each education grade. Besides that, we can see there are so many courses in each area till the urban area. By looking it, English is important in our life. When the people who go to another country for studying, they must have English as their medium of study. This is because they will not be able to learn countries and also between political leaders of various countries. If a political leader like president visits a country which English is not their native language, he or she often uses English to great each other because both of them have different language When we make trip to another country, the language may different with ours, and we do not understand the language which is being used in that country, in this circumstance English is the solution when we want to communicate with the society. While someone wants to improve his or her business and make link with foreigner, they often post their commercial in the internet and all the instructions use English, if she or he does not understand the instruction it is difficult for them to post their commercial. In spite of the growth of internet in various languages, English is the mainstay of the internet users. This is the language in most of the information and websites are available. It is very difficult to translate each relevant web page into language of various countries. With internet becoming very important in E-commerce and also in education, English is bound to grow. Thus the importance of English is emphasized.
Many popular books, novel or article are written in English. We often use them when we learn a subject if we do not understand English it is hard for us to understand what is being talked about meanwhile the information is very important for us to develop our knowledge about a subject. Many international event and competitions use English during the match, for example most of term in sport use English, when we watch a competition like football match it is broadcasted in English. Many international organizations like United Nation use English when they conduct meeting with all their members. Nowadays people learn English since elementary school because they understand how important English is. English becomes a world language which connects people around the world. We learn English not only from books, but also from newspaper, magazine, and novel. Learning English can be fun too. For example, we can learn English through music, movie, and television. When we listen to English song, we get some new words and practice our pronunciation. It makes our vocabularies increase indirectly, and sometimes it is more interested to learn English. In conclusion, English is really important and can be learnt by all of the people easily.
b. Brief Review of an ESP Approach in Syllabus Design
`ESP that stands for English for Specific Purpose which sphere of teaching English language including business English, technical English, English for medical professionals who are going to use it. The main derive behind the introduction of ESP was practical rather than theoretical. With the rapid increase after the war in the importance of English for education, technology and commerce, increasing, numbers of people around the world needed to learn English for clearly defined reasons such as reading academic textbooks or transacting business (Hutchinson and Waters 1987). Besides that, ESP is an approach to teaching English based on designing courses to meet learner’s need. (Hutchinson and Waters 1987) then ESP is focused on specific needs of the learners and centered on the language appropriate to these activities in term of grammar.ESP approach preferable because ESP focused on needs and interests of learners.So that, it will make the teaching meaningful, motivating, and enjoyable. Besides that, the teacher can be aimed for teaching by using ESP approach. The teacher understand and know what the learners need and how the way to get it. The meaning needs consist of three aspects. Those are necessities, wants, and lack. As we know that necessities are the target needs, that is the demands of the target situation, or we can say that necessities are a destination or the purposed. Whereas about wants, that is what would learners like to gain from the language course (personal aim/needs) or we can say that wants is those needs on which student put high priority in the available , limited time. Then lacks is defined what has the learner already known or the level of language. We must understand the ability of student, so we know how to begin the course. Besides that, the lack is of the necessities do the learners lack (gap). The gap means how long we get between starting point to the necessities.
There seem to be two favorite ways of treating the concepts of ESP and EAP. Some ESP teachers consider that since many EAP courses are designed to suit students in all academic disciplines, EAP is too broad in scope to be considered a branch of ESP. These teachers think of it as the superordinate category from which spring increasingly specific types of ESP (see Jordan 1989). However, this takes no account of other types of ESP such as English for Occupational Purposes (EOP). Since EAP is itself a type of ESP because it is concerned with the English required for a specific purpose, that of studying at universities and colleges, it is more usual to think of ESP as the superordinate term, with EAP and EOP branching form it (Jordan 1989 and Robinson 1991). EAP courses can be divided into those for English for General Academic Purposes (EGAP) and those for Specific Academic Purposes (ESAP) (Blue 1993). ESAP courses can range from broad groupings of subjects, such as EST or ESAP courses can range from broad groupings of subjects, such as EST or Liberal Arts, to ones which are so highly specific that they are suitable only for single students or for small groups in one narrowly defined discipline. (‘Discipline’, ‘Field of Study’ and ‘ Subject area’ are used interchangeably in this book )
At the time, teachers of General English courses, while acknowledging that students had a specific purpose for studying English, would rarely conduct a needs analysis to find out what was necessary to actually achieve it. Teachers nowadays, however, are much more aware of the importance of needs analysis, and certainly materials writers think very carefully about the goals of learners at all stages of materials production. Perhaps this demonstrates the influence that the ESP approach has had on English teaching in general. Clearly the line between where General English courses stop and ESP courses start has become very vague indeed.
Rather ironically, while many General English teachers can be described as using an ESP approach, basing their syllabus on a learner needs analysis and their own specialist knowledge of using English for real communication, it is the majority of so-called ESP teachers that are using an approach furthest from that described above. Instead of conducting interviews with specialists in the field, analyzing the language that is required in the profession, or even conducting students’ needs analysis, many ESP teachers have become slaves of the published textbooks available, unable to evaluate their suitability based on personal experience, and unwilling to do the necessary analysis of difficult specialist texts to verify their contents.
The definition Dudley-Evans offers is clearly influenced by that of Strevens (1988), although he has improved it substantially by removing the absolute characteristic that ESP is “in contrast with ‘General English'” (Johns et al., 1991: 298), and has included more variable characteristics. The division of ESP into absolute and variable characteristics, in particular, is very helpful in resolving arguments about what is and is not ESP. From the definition, we can see that ESP can but is not necessarily concerned with a specific discipline, nor does it have to be aimed at a certain age group or ability range. ESP should be seen simple as an ‘approach’ to teaching, or what Dudley-Evans describes as an ‘attitude of mind’. This is a similar conclusion to that made by Hutchinson et al. (1987:19) who state, “ESP is an approach to language teaching in which all decisions as to content and method are based on the learner’s reason for learning”.
c. Method of doing need analysis
The analysis is conducted by reading articles and book, the writer reads some articles which explain about secretary’s job.
II. NEED ANALYSIS
1 Target Group : English for secretary
2 Responsibilities of the target group Responsibilities
a. Distributing information through using telephone, e-mail, or mail
b. Writing some kinds of letter, invitation and memo correctly
c. Arranging the meeting
d. Managing receive guest
e. Producing presentation
3. Translating the Duties into communicative needs In order to be able to do these responsibilities a secretary most have language ability :
a. How to distribute information through using telephone, e-mail, or mail
b. How to write some kinds of letter, invitation and memo correctly
c. How to arrange the meeting
d. How to manage for receiving guest
e. How to produce the presentation
4 . Translating the Communicative Needs into Competency/Skill and Sub-skill : One communicative needs can be translated into several English competencies
a. How to distribute information through using telephone, e-mail, or mail correctly
Can dial and receive telephone
Can take caller identity immediately
Can take massage from the caller quickly
Can operate e-mail or mail
Can conclude the massage from e-mail or mail
Can convey the massage correctly
b. How to write some kinds of letter, invitation and memo correctly
Understand about some kind of letter
Understand the parts of letter such as heading, address, etc.
Can write address correctly
Can write number of letter correctly
Understand about business letter
Can write the content of letter effectively
Understand about some kinds of invitation
Can write invitation effectively
Understand about parts of memo
Can write memo in communicative way
c. How to arrange the meeting
Can prepare the meeting
Understand about the schedule
Understand about the material for the meeting
Can organize the meeting
Can make a note about the meeting
Can make a report about the meeting result
Can distribute the information to the other staffs.
d. How to receive the guest
Can use greeting and leave taking
Can enquiry the guest identity
Can communicate appropriately
Can make secure in communication
Know the guest purpose
e. How to produce presentation
Can apply the software of presentation
Can arrange the material of presentation
Can arrange the slide of presentation well
5 . Translation Of English competencies into Linguistic and other specification : Based on the responsibilities which is mentioned above, they need to teach how to :
a. Can dial and receive telephone
Expressing for greeting and leave taking
b. Can take caller identity
Question (yes/no and informative question/ direct and indirect question )
Spelling number and name clearly
c. Can take massage from the caller
Mastering 5W+H question and ye or no question
d. Can write letter, invitation and memo correctly
Writing the salutation of letter
Writing opening and closing of letter correctly
Mastering about structures of grammar
Mastering structure of text
e. Understand about schedule
Knowing the vocabularies of schedule
f. can receive guest
expressing for asking and offering politely
Expressing informative question.
g. Can apply software of presentation
Know the vocabularies of software presentation
Functional English for Junior High School at grade VIII,
Living English Structure,
Hasan, Idrusdkk. 2004. BagaimanaMembuatSuratBahasaInggris (teori praktek): Jakarta. RestuAgung
Sujana, I Made. 2006. English for Specific Purpose.:Mataram.