According to Cambridge dictionary which states that clause is a group of words, consisting of a subject and a finite form of a verb (the form that shows the tense and subject of the verb) which might or might not be a sentence.  It means that a clause is a group of words which consist of a subject and a verb which forms a sentence or a part of sentence. Basically, a clause consists of independent clause and dependent clause. Independent clause is a main clause or a  sentence which is able to stand by its own self such as I go to school. That example shows an independent clause which consists of subject, verb and adverb of place that can be used in its own.

According to Hanafi (2010) states that there are three clause levels, those are :

  1. a.    Nominal Clause

Nominal clause is a clause which can be function as a Subject or Object.

example :

  1. What the man saw was a big diamond
  2. What you think of is different from me.
  3. What you have done is nothing for your future.

Those examples above are nominal clause as Subject. For number one “ what the man saw is Subject because it precedess the full verb of was  which is same as the example number two and three “what you think of “ and “what you have done” precede the full verb is.

While the example of nominal clause as object, that is:

  1. Can you decide what you want to get?
  2. I will give whatever you want.
  3. I do not comprehend what you think of.
  4. We appreciate what you have done.

The examples above demonstrate the nominal clause as object because what you want to get is followed by the verb decide. It is similar as the next examples which are as object followed by the verbs of give, comprehend and appreciate. Besides that, we can prove them as object by using passive testing. We can change those examples into the passive such as “what you think of is not comprehended by me” or “ what you have done is not appreaciated by us”. If those examples are able to be passive, so we can say that they are nominal clause as object.

  1. b.   Adverbial Clause

Adverbial clause is a dependent clause which has function as an adverb. Most adverbs modify or add information about the verb or verb prhase of the main clause.  In case the adverbial clause falls into adverbial clause of time, place, and purpose.

Example :

  1. I want to say good bye before I leave.
  2. Your father wants to talk when you arrive at home.
  3. Wherever you are I truely miss you
  4. She learns every night to get high score in final examination.
  5. I studied hard so that i would get schoolarship.

In (1) it demonstrates the adverbial caluse of time because  the dependent clause “ before I leave”  is marked by the word before. While for the second example is same as the first example. They are both of adverbial clause of time marked with word when and before. On the other hand, in (3) it is an example of adverbial clause of place, because it is clearly marked by using word wherever. Then, for the example numbers (4) and (5) are adverbial clause of purpose, because they are marked with the words to invinitive to get and so that. 

  1. c.    Dependent Clause

Dependent clause is a group of words which contains a subject and a predicate, but does not express the complete thought.  Dependent clause is also called subordinate clause or lower clause, because the clause can not stand alone. Hence, the dependent clause usually together with independent clause.

Example :

  1. I mean the book that was borrowed two days ago.
  2. I want to discuss the topic which is given by Mr. Nurahmadi last week.
  3. He knows the man who is standing over there.

The words which are underline above are dependent clause or subordinate clause. They can stand alone, they should be together with the main clause to complete their meaning.

  1. The major differences between clause and sentence lies on a clause is a part of sentence.  A clause is always smaller than sentence. The clause can be a sentence if it is a main clause or indepencent clause. However, when the clause is subbordinate clause or dependent clause, it is not a sentence. Because dependent clause is a clause which is incomplete idea, it cannot stand by itself. Dependent clause needs some words to make complete meaning. While a sentence is always a complete idea, it can stand by itself.

For example :

I know the women who is reading a novel.

The example above is a complex sentence which consist of two clause, that is:  independent clause and dependent clause. I know the women is a main clause and it can be called as a sentence because the form is complete and clear meaning or idea. It contains Subject, Verb, and object. While who is reading a novel is dependent or subordinate clause. It cannot call as a sentence because it cannot stand by itself. It has incomplete meaning. We will know the meaning when the dependent clause together with the main clause such as the example above.

  1. Two identical properties of direct object (DO) and indirect object (IO).
  2. IO occurs after DO. We can see in the examples below:

Example :

  1. He gave a book to me
  2. She brings a glass of water for me

By looking those examples above, the identical properties of direct and indirect object is IO occurs after DO. Because we can indentify which one is direct object by using question of what or whom. In (1) and (2) what did he give to me? and what does he bring for me? The answers will be (1) a book  and (2) a glass of water.  A book  and a g lass of water  are DO in those sentences. While for indirect object we can used the question of  to whom he gave a book? The anwer is  me, in hence the IO is  me. as the result me as IO occurs after DO.

  1. IO precedes the DO

It means that DO occurs after IO. According to the example a (1 and 2) above, we can promote the IO before DO such as the example below :

3. He gave me a book

4. They gave me some comics.

me as IO occurs before DO a book and some comics.


  1. Some properties of Indierct Object (IO) are:
  2. IO is marked with a preposition and follows the DO.

It means that we can identify which one is IO by knowing that IO is marked with a preposition such as to and for and IO occurs after DO.

For example :

  1. She bought a car for me yesterday
  2. They give some comics to me

Based on the examples above the IO are me. it is marked with preposition to, for and occurs after DO.

  1. IO precedes the DO

It means that the position of IO are before DO such as examples below:

  1. She bought me a car
  2. They gave me some comics
  1. IO can be a grammatical S after being promoted to Do position

In this case, IO is promoted to be a Subject in the sentence in form of Passive.

For instance :

5. She bought me a car à I was bought a car by her

6. They gave me some comics à I was given some comics by them

The examples number 3 and 4 which are me as IO will change to be a Subject in the example of number 4 and 6 such as, me change to be I. Then, the active sentences change to be passive which is marked with  was + V3. At the last, she and they are subject in the example 3 and 4 change to be by phrase (by her and by them) in 5 and 6.

  1. IO has a case marking in case a languages.

The example :

Memeq tiange meliang  kelambi angon tiang

Mother-1SG      buy           T-shirt     IO  me

“ my mother buy-s  T- shirt for me”

In this case, a case marking of IO in the Bali language is “angon”.

  1. The identical properties of all grammatical relation is:
    1. All of grammatical relation is identical properties in noun phrase. We can see that the grammatical relation consists of subject, object, direct object, and inderect object are the role of noun phrase. We can prove them by using tree diagram such as this example below :

She bought a car to me

NP                 VP          NP

N                   V         art        N         PP

P              NP


S                    V         ART    DO      Pre       IO

She           bought     a       car      to          me

  1. All grammatical relation can be function as subject either it is object, direct object, and indirect object in form of Passivization. When the active sentence change to be a passive sentence the object, direct object, or indirect object change becomes a subject in that sentence.

For example :

She tells some stories

O à S Some stories are told by her Passive form

She tells some stories to me

DOàS Some stories are told by her to me Passive form
IO à S I am told some stories by her Passive form