Abortion is a term which is not strange now, because almost a lot of people know about it. Abortion is one of big problems in Indonesia. Every year, the case of abortions always increases. The issue of abortion is very controversial in today society, everyone disagrees to do abortion, and they think that it is a sin which is not suitable to do this. Beside that they want the baby to get a chance live in this world. However, they don’t think that women should have the right to abort an unborn child. By the forbidding abortion, the women perforce do abortion in unskilled person or hospital which does not have good facility. In fact, abortion makes mother and baby’s mortality increases which is caused many people do abortion in illegal clinic. So, the Government should allow the hospital to do abortion that the woman can do safe abortion. As the result, abortion should be legalized to minimize the mother and baby’s mortality.
Abortion is defined as the termination of pregnancy by the removal or expulsion from the uterus of a fetus before it is viable. According to Dr. Agus Abadi and Dr. Soetomo, they define abortion that desisting of life for a fetus of pregnancy in the age before 20 weeks or the weight is less than 500 gram. Then WHO (World Health Organization) fixes over the definition of abortion, the abortion is desisting of life for a fetus of pregnancy in the under age 28 weeks or the weight is less than 1000 gram. The term of abortion can be called “abort”. We can conclude that abortion is a process when a woman who ends her pregnancy deliberately, so that the baby is not born alive.
There are two types of abortion; they are spontaneous abortion and provocation abortion. The first one, spontaneous abortion is aborts pregnancy intuitively, it is without medical treatment. Second one, provocation abortion is aborts pregnancy intentionally. Spontaneous abortion consists of four types. The first type is threatening abortion (iminen abort) which threatens miscarriage. It hasn’t happened miscarriage yet, however, there are symptoms which indicate will be miscarriage. The next type is incompletion abort which is not complete abortion. It means that it had happened miscarriage. It had been expulsion of fetus, but it had not been complete. The third type is completion abort which is complete abortion. It means that the miscarriage had been expulsion of fetus which had been complete. A lot of parts had been out. The final type is insipient abort. It means that a fetus had passed away in uterus. However, it has not turned out yet. On the other hand, provocation abortion has two categories which are medical provocation abort and criminal provocation abort. People consider that abortion as a big sin, because it includes of homicide. It means that we kill someone or a baby who does not have any mistakes or the baby is still pure. If we see from the religion side and morality, abortion is the last measure which does not include in the chose of measurement. We believe that all people know abortion is a dangerous action.
The reason why abortion should be legalized is. We can see that Indonesia is one of countries which are not allowed abortion because it is a criminal action. We can find in UUD RI No. 1 year 1946, criminal-law procedural code (KUHP), it explains that abortion is an action which against law by any reasons. On the other hand, every year the grade of abortion always increases in Indonesia. WHO estimates that there is 4,2 million every year who do abortion and 2.500 woman died (Wijono 2000). Survey of the household health in 1995: the contribution of abortion is 11,1% toward the mother and baby’s mortality. By the forbidding abortion, it can create illegal clinics and people who are brag. It means that, the people who said that they can do safe abortion. But in fact, what they have done are malpractices which can endanger woman. On the other hand, not only using equipment which is not sterile or hazardous equipment, but also using the medicine which is illegal or folk medicine. Besides that, the doctors and hospitals which have permit will refuse abortion question. Excepting if the fetus which is womb dead and because of the medical reason which is urgent. Never again do they give advice to the woman who is confusing about her life. In fact the doctor usually judges her. It is a quiet treatment which is contrary with doctor oath. Researching in 10 capital cities and 6 regencies show 53% abortion happened in capital cities, and the percentage of abortion which has been done by unskilled people is 16% in the cities, whereas in regency is 57% which has been done by indigenous medical practitioner.
The Indonesia law should be able to save mother from the death of unsafe abortion. There are three the abortion laws in Indonesia are implemented up to now. Those are UU R1 No.1 year 1946 about abortion break the rule, UU RI No. 7 year 1984 about authenticating convention of abolition all kind of discriminations toward women, and UU RI No. 23 1992 about the health which writes abortion can be done in all certain condition. However, the law exactly is regarded to make disadvantages for Indonesian, because abortion is still regarded a criminal action. If the abortion is legalized by any reasons, we can do safe abortion, then giving sanitary facility, legal medicine, and the doctors who are really competent. Therefore, the cases of the mother and baby’s mortality can be reduced.
However, by creating legal clinic, the problem hasn’t solved yet. Because, there is one thing that is important like human thinking of abortion. I do believe that the people will disagree and say that “how mad someone who wants to legalize abortion is”. Abortion has been a controversial subject in many societies through history because of the moral, ethical, practical, and political power issues that surround it. As we know that abortion is a big sin in human eyes. They think that if abortion is legalized, it will be like in West Country which can damage morality, culture and nation. On the other hand, all of us know that abortion is a dangerous measurement, which can cause death. Abortion has many risks which can damage the woman health like uterine perforation, ovarian cancer, cervical cancer, liver cancer, etc. So, if someone does abortion in illegal clinic, the risks will happened. Therefore, legalized abortion is necessary to protect the life of the woman and in some cases to protect the health of the woman.
Besides, the people think that by legalizing abortion people are not necessary to get marriage to do sex in their life. However, we can not say like that, it is totally wrong. Every woman wants to get marriage with someone who loves her and lives together. She wants to have children and to get happy family. So we have to know why the women do abortion. If someone does not want with her pregnancy, because of she is still young and her couple does not want to responsibility or especially the case of rape. We can not deny that someone who is pregnant due to rape will decide to do abortion. That is one of good solutions for her. It is caused impossible for her to bear a child without a father. Beside that, there is no mother who wants to pregnant and bears children that she does not love. There is nothing worse for a child is born but unwanted by his mother. This is thing which is forgotten by many people due to the length of the logic or thought that has been closed with a single sentence that “abortion is a sin.” If we say that is there a mother who does not love her children..? We can say yes, there are many mothers who do not love their children. We can see the proof in the reality. There are many cases which are about maltreatment of child. The maltreatment is like violence. Violence here is like physical violence, psychological violence, and sexual violence. Physical violence, in the form of action to hurt the child, by any means (you can also use sharp objects), which makes his body hurt, mentally, and he thought to be trauma or shock. In fact, even lead to death also. While the psychic violence, is a form of words, treatment, or attitudes that result in psychological imbalance in the child, for example, so feel inferior, lack of confidence, depression, trauma, and the like. So, we can say that it is same with abortion, they were both killed.
Being either parent or a mother is not easy. It is caused throughout the life of a child depends on their shoulders. A child will not continue be a baby, it means the baby will not be funny and cute on. However, they will grow up be teenager and adult. They will respond toward what their parent done. We can imagine if a child must live in the middle of a parent or a mother who does not want his born. However, they just perforce because of her fear will be gain the sin and ashamed. Undesirable feeling that can be felt by a child who is actually more sensitive to capture the aura of a person. If from childhood he had felt, the children will grow up without any confidences, full of sadness and hatred against him. Besides, if he grows not just by feeling unwanted, but also with the screaming, insulting sentences that show clearly how his parents did not want him. He will grow up to be a destroyer, the destroyer that could destroy him self, others or both of them.
Not a few people who oppose abortion believe that abortion is often done by women who did not marry for reasons outside of marriage. Therefore, they think that by legalizing abortion, it can increase of free sex for teenagers. Legalizing abortion has nothing to do with free sex. Because, free sex caused by the wrong sex education. However, in fact the case study in Bali finds that 71% the women who have done abortions are married women (Dewi 1997). Beside that, a case study conducted by population council 98,8% of women have abortions at a clinic in Jakarta have been married and the average already have another child. As the results of a survey conducted central bureau of statistics, 75% of women of reproductive age is married and do not want additional children. (CBS, Dep.Kes 1988)
Existences of problems above, abortion should be legal in Indonesia and government should make requirements for each person who will conduct abortion. Giving existence of requirements, the act of abortion is not too free. However, there is a requirement which regulates and qualifies it. As for its requirements as below:
1. Abortion should be done in the hospital or clinic which has qualify and permitted.
2. The age limit of pregnant maximum 23 weeks.
3. The women who intend to conduct abortion should get counseling in order to decide for themselves to aborted or not, and post-abortion counseling in order to avoid repeat abortions.
4. The women who are under age marriage must be accompanied by their parents in making the abortion decision.
5. The law should permit abortion on medical indication, which was decided by the minister of health with a deadline of two years.
6. Abortion services by the designated government clinics, and are relatively inexpensive cost.
All of requirements above must be qualified for each person who will conduct abortion. So, there is no person who conducts unsafe abortion. On the other hand, it can minimize the account of illegal clinics.
In conclusion, the reasons why abortion should be legalized, that is, firstly one of most important reasons is the possibility of getting raped. Like above, we knew that raped could get a result in the victim of getting pregnant. So, the women have right to choose abortion for safe their life. Then, the second reason is to minimize unsafe abortion. By legalizing abortion, there is no illegal clinic again, it is caused the hospital have had permitted to conduct abortion. The third is to minimize mother and baby’s mortality. Legalizing abortion will minimize mother and baby’s mortality by preparing them the hospital which has permitted, the doctor who is competence, and so on. So that, everyone can conduct safe abortion which safes mother life. On the other hand, the other reason why abortion should be legalized is adoption is another option. It means that the people think that adoption is better than abortion. The children whom they don’t want to prefer to adopt with the other people. In fact, it is wrong, because it will make a problem in future. When the children knew that they are adoption children, they would be shock. Perhaps they would not accept it or would hate their mother. So, abortion is better than adoption. As the result, government should keep legal abortion. The government has to know that by legalizing abortion is not wrong policy. However, it can be useful for human being. Beside that, the most important thing that it can minimize the mother and baby’s mortality. So that abortion should be legalized in Indonesia.